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The Testing Principle and Configuration of a Tension Machine


Tension machines are widely used in the production and research of raw materials and products such as plastics and rubber. They are suitable for chemical production enterprises, universities, and research institutes to measure the mechanical properties of materials. They are mainly used for testing materials such as plastic films, fabrics, leather, monofilament, and metal foil.

Three basic configurations for intelligent tension machines:

The host, microcomputer, and printer can print directly if the microcomputer is powerful. Additionally, it can be equipped with a regular computer. With computers, complex data analysis can be carried out, such as data editing, local amplification, adjustable report format, and group style statistical analysis. If a computer is used, the manufacturer should add the corresponding control system.

The main configuration of the tension machine:

Transmission includes screw drive and rack drive. The former is expensive and used for high-precision testing with high repeatability, while the latter is cheap and used for high-precision testing with low repeatability. The lead screw plays a decisive role in measuring the accuracy of tension. Generally, there are ball screws, trapezoidal screws, and general screws. Among them, the ball screw has a higher degree of accuracy, but its performance depends on the operation of a computer servo system, and the entire set is also relatively expensive. The precision required for soft packaging can be achieved by using ordinary and trapezoidal lead screws, which is 0.1-1% accuracy. The main cost of sensors lies in their lifespan, and photoelectric induction is a comparative technology that can be used more than 100000 times.

Through material mechanics, we can know that under the premise of small deformation, the strain at a certain point of an elastic element ε If it is proportional to the force exerted on the elastic element, then it is also proportional to the deformation of the elasticity. When the sensor of the tensile machine is subjected to the effect of tensile force P, because the surface of the elastic element is pasted with a strain gauge, and the strain of the elastic element is in direct proportion to the size of the external force P, so when the strain gauge is connected to the measuring circuit, the tensile machine can measure its output voltage to detect the size of the force.

What is the purpose of deformation measurement? As the name suggests, deformation measurement is to detect the deformation that occurs in the sample during our experiment. The deformation measurement part has two chucks, which are connected together by a series of memory transfer heads and a photoelectric encoder in the measurement installation part. When the interval between the two chucks changes, it drives the axis of the photoelectric encoder to rotate, and the photoelectric encoder will output pulse signals. Then use the processor to process this signal, so that we can obtain the deformation of the sample.